HONOURABLE MENTION

#### Heated Volcano Lamp

We are making a heated volcano lamp to help us in an emergency or in remote areas.

### Hypothesis

If, we add vinegar and food colouring to the volcano lamp and

Then, if when adding baking soda to the solution, the volcano would erupt

Because the baking soda and vinegar give a chemical reaction.

### Research

The volcano part of the lamp contains baking soda, vinegar, and food colouring. The food colouring and vinegar will mix together because they have the same density. The chemical compound of baking soda contains the elements of sodium, hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen. These compounds [sodium, hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen] break up when the vinegar is poured in. The carbon and oxygen separate from the original compound to form a new compound that is known as carbon dioxide.

We have also used the series circuit in this project. The series circuit consists of a light bulb, batteries, and wires. Most of the materials used in this project were from the spares in the house. Most of the light bulbs are 120V, however for this project we used a low voltage bulb that can be powered using the battery's DC voltage. The main reason we chose a series circuit is to provide the minimum voltage (12 volts) required for the light bulb. To achieve this, we used two 9 volt batteries in series by connecting the positive terminal of the first battery to the negative terminal of the second battery. Then, the light bulb was connected to the other two remaining terminals of the batteries.

### Variables

Control Variables

We kept the same size of the wires, type of batteries and the light bulb, number of batteries and light bulb, and volcano base.

Manipulated Varaibles

The result of the size of the volcano can be changed by manipulating the amount of vinegar and baking soda. We could add more batteries but, there would be a consequence for the light bulb to blow up.

Responding Variables

We had to measure how many voltages there were in the batteries together to allow the light bulb to light up.

### Procedure

First, we had started on the volcano lamp. We added vinegar and food colouring to the reusable plastic bottle as a volcano base, and mixed them up to make a solution.

Then, we had worked on the electrical circuit. We began by attaching the batteries and connecting a wire from the positive terminal of one battery to the negative terminal of the other battery. We continued, by connecting two wires to the light bulb. The other ends of the wires from the bulb were connected to the remaining battery terminals. We secured the light bulb to the reusable foam cup by making a hole on the bottom of the cup. Lastly, we attached the foam cup to the plastic bottle (i.e. volcano base).

Then to test the volcano lamp we added baking soda to the vinegar solution.

### Observations

 Time of Eruption The eruption only lasts for 15-20 seconds Height of Eruption The solution comes up to 4 centimetres The voltage needed in Light Bulb The light bulb could only light up if there is 12 voltage coming from the battery. Voltage in Battery To make the light bulb light up both batteries combined have 18 voltage.

We noticed that as soon as we add baking soda to the solution, it reacts chemically with the vinegar in the solution. This chemical reaction process makes the solution rising as bubbles, which makes it appear like a volcano eruption.

As soon as we connect the lead wires to the battery terminals, the electrons flow through the wires turning the light bulb on. The bright light from the light bulb reflects through the solution, making the entire solution light up in colours.

### Analysis

We figured that the volcano would have only worked when we added baking soda to the solution. When testing the prototype, we learned that if the oil was added to the vinegar solution, the volcano didn't erupt and there was some foam on the surface of the liquid.

We did some research to find the appropriate size of batteries and wires available in my home for this project. We analyzed how to connect two batteries in series to get more voltage. After we connected two batteries in series, we checked the voltage through the multimeter to make sure there was enough voltage required for the light bulb.

We also did some research to find a low voltage light bulb that could run on DC power. We also had to be innovative and creative in connecting wire ends to the battery terminals via binder clips.

The idea of using a household foam cup to support and hold the light bulb underneath the volcano container was also very thoughtful and creative.

### Conclusion

Our objective was to make a Heating Volcano Lamp.

We decided to make a Heating Volcano Lamp because we wanted to make something that is useful in real-life emergencies. For example, you could simply just use the Volcano Lamp in an emergency on a cold day or in remote areas.

The results of this project were very exciting and pleasing. We managed to make the volcano light up and produce the heat to keep us warm. Thus, we were able to prove our hypothesis.

### Application

If you are in a remote area or if the power goes out, we could use the volcano lamp to give heat and light.

### Sources Of Error

The sources of error in this experiment could be:

1. Battery voltage
2. Broken wires
3. Wire terminals
4. Electrical circuit
5. Bulb's filament
6. Ratio of solute and solvent

### Acknowledgement

I acknowledge my dad and Mr.Basi (My science instructor) for making me understand more about electricity, chemical reactions, and providing different ideas for this extraordinary experiment.