HONOURABLE MENTION

The Age Of Vaccines

In this project Mykael and Kyle will be explaining how do vaccines create immunization in your immune system
Kyle Ross Mykael Livermore
Grade 7

Problem

How do vaccines create immunization in your immune system?

Method

Our method will be to use trusted sources e.g reliable internet sources, books, asking experts on the topic, etc. We will be writing what we have found out weekly using a sentence-like note-taking method. We are showing the information through a scope that anyone can understand by giving relations to everyday things e.g. telephone lines. Once we have written our notes down we will start to compare and contrast our written notes then start to write them down into a science fair project format.

Research

Vaccines create immunization inside of your immune system by sending antigen-presenting cells (APC) to search for the vaccine within your body. Once the APC finds the vaccine it will break it down and collect the antigen, displaying it on its surface. The APC with the antigen will then go to an area with a large cluster of immune cells to show other cells the antigen. For a naïve T cell to become a T helper cell it needs to interact with an antigen. The activated T helper cell alerts other cells about the antigen roaming around in the body. When a naïve B cell interacts with an antigen it becomes activated, once a naïve B cell is activated it can use cell division (Cloning) and make more naïve B cells specific to the antigen that will either become a plasma B cell or a memory B cell. After a B cell grows into an antigen-specific plasma B cell, the plasma B cell will produce antibodies specific to the found antigen. The produced antibodies will attach themselves to the vaccine antigen in the body, this makes the antigen not able to break into cells or marks the antigen for killing. If the vaccine is an attenuated virus then the vaccine antigens will enter cells and infect them, killer T cells will look for the infected cells and kill them. Naïve killer T cells need to interact with an APC with an antigen to activate into a killer T cell. There are 3 types of memory cells: Memory Killer T cells, remember how to fight the specific antigen that activated them. Memory B cells remember how to produce antibodies tailored to that specific antigen. Memory helper T cells remember how to alert other cells to get them to do their job made for the specific antigen.

Conclusion

In conclusion, we learned that vaccines create immunity in your body by sending antigen-presenting cells to search for the vaccine antigen. An antigen is a cell that covers a pathogen, antigens trigger immune responses which is why it is needed in vaccines. Once found a cell called helper T cell alerts close by immune cells that the antigen has been found. Naive B cells that have interacted with the antigen can either turn into a memory B cell that remembers the antigen and how to fight it or they can turn into a plasma B cell which is a factory for antibodies. Antibodies are the soldiers of the body. If the vaccine contains an attenuated antigen, the antigen will infect other cells. When Naive Killer T cells interact with an APC with an antigen they become killer T cells. Killer T cells consume the infected cells. Any of these Naive cells can form into a memory cell associated with their name so they can remember the processes of which the cells worked. By remembering these processes it kickstarts the body to become faster and stronger for the next time the pathogen is caught. This Infomation is important because lots of people in the world believe that vaccines harm your body because of the spread of false information. We also made sections on this project about the common ingredients, types of vaccines, stages of production, and myth-busting, in these areas we have talked about how in the last several years vaccines have become safer and how vaccines are not as bad as society makes them sound. All that vaccines do is speed up your immune response to a specific pathogen. There is an extremely small chance of being harmed from vaccines, the odds of this are way lower than getting the disease with no vaccine. With all of this information, we hope others will continue vaccination or start vaccination to make a jump to creating a healthier world. 

Citations

https://www.vaccines.gov/basics/types

https://immunizebc.ca/how-do-vaccines-work

https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/conversations/downloads/vacsafe-understandhttps://www.who.int/news-room/feature-stories/detail/how-do-vaccines-work#:~:text=Vaccines%20contain%20weakened%20or%20inactive,rather%20than%20the%20antigen%20itself.-color-office.pdf

https://www.who.int/news-room/feature-stories/detail/how-do-vaccines-work

https://www.publichealth.org/public-awareness/understanding-vaccines/vaccines-work/

https://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/how-vaccines-work

https://www.immunology.org/celebrate-vaccines/public-engagement/guide-childhood-vaccinations/how-vaccines-work

https://vk.ovg.ox.ac.uk/vk/how-do-vaccines-work

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T_helper_cell

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naive_B_cell

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naive_T_cell

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasma_cell#:~:text=Plasma%20cell.%20Plasma%20cells%2C%20also%20called%20plasma%20B,bone%20marrow%3B%20B%20cells%20differentiate%20into%20plasma%20cells

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytotoxic_T_cell 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory_B_cell

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory_T_cell

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26700072/

https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/drugs-health-products/covid19-industry/drugs-vaccines-treatments/vaccines/moderna.html

https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/additives.htm

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-so-many-americans-are-skeptical-of-a-coronavirus-vaccine/

Acknowledgement

Mykael's Dad helped Mykael by reading over the written paragraphs and telling us that it may be a good idea to show what diseases have been cured due to vaccines and what the reason for debates about vaccines are. 

Mykael explained to his mom the different processes of immunization cells and she asked questions that I didn't know the answer to which encouraged me to research more.  

Kyle's Dad gave us the idea of making graphs and charts for the information we have collected so far.

Kyle's  Step-Dad corrected some of our information on how the cells work when creating immunity from a vaccine.

Mr. Downey guided us in the right direction and on track with this project by having scheduled meetings regularly.

We would like to say a massive thank you to everyone who helped and guided us with this project, we appreciate it a lot!