SILVER

#### Deliquidification Demonstration

I freeze dried 3 different types of milk (almond, soy and cows milk) to see which type was more viable to transport based on its ending weight.

### Problem

What type of milk is more viable to transport based on their weight?

HYPOTHISIS

If i freeze dry 2% cow's milk vs almond milk vs soy milk then i think the cow milk will  win because it is thin and the other ones are thicker

VARIABLES

Manipulated Variables-The manipulated variables are the types of milk which is Almond Milk , Cow Milk , Soy Milk.

Responding Variables-The responding variable is which milk ends up weighing the least.

Constant Variables-The constant variable is the amount of pre-freeze dried milk.

SOURCES OF ERROR

I only really had one problem but it was really easy to solve , my error was we tried to add 1 L but it was to much so we halved that so we ended up with 500M.

### Method

Almond milk is a plant based  drink made by toasting and crushing almonds and blending them with water.

Cow's milk is 87% water 3.4% fat 4.9% lactose and 0.7% minerals.

Soy milk is another plant based drink made by cooking the soy beans in water then separate them and then grinding.

This experiment started on Jan 3 2021 @12:00pm at Create Kitchen (commercial grade kitchen ).  I poured the Almond milk into a measuring cup stopping at 500ml and then filled a tray that was already prepped and sitting in the freeze drying machine.   I repeated those same steps with the cows milk and the soy milk and once in the machine I pushed the start button at 1:10pm at that point the starting temp was 40F and the pressure was 2500 m Torr.  The next day, exactly 26 hours and 56 mins later the process was complete, to which the end temp was -135F and 216 m Torr.  I took out the tray with the almond milk and right away I noticed that it looked like a very light brown sawdust consistency.  I then dumped the powder into a pre-measured bowl and broke it up with my hands.  It felt really dry and very light weight.  The last stage was pouring the powder into an airtight baggie and doing the final weight.   All the same steps were made with the Cow and soy milks.  The Cow's milk came out the same starting color which was bright white and a very fine poweded form.  To me, the Soy milk came out a light beige color and texture was flakey.

### Analysis

Based on my graph results at a measure of 500ml and prior to freezing, the Soy milk was the heaviest at 560g, the Almond milk weighed in at 543g and the Cow's milk was the lightest at 526g. Post freeze drying the Almond milk ended up weighing the least at 15g, following the Soy milk at 39g and the heavist being Cow's milk at 56g.

### Conclusion

In the end my hypothesis was off, as i predicted the Cows milk would be the lightest,  but it ended up being the Almond milk which was just over 1/4 the weight of the Cow's milk

SOURCES OF ERROR

I only really had one problem but it was really easy to solve , my error was we tried to add 1 L but it was to much so we halved that so we ended up with 500M.

### Citations

Science Direct (cows milk)Information Retrieved from -Cow Milk - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics.

Almond milk what is it (almond milk)Information Retreived  from -https://www.fitday.com/fitness-articles/nutrition/healthy-eating/almond-milk-what-is-it-and-is-it-good-for-you.html

MillRock Tech(freeze dryer)Information Retreived from -https://www.millrocktech.com/lyosight/lyobrary/what-is-freeze-drying/

What is Soy milk (soy milk) Information Retreived from https://www.thespruceeats.com/is-soy-milk-healthy-or-not-765047

Also Janna Hattingh, my auntie

### Acknowledgement

Janna Hattingh (my aunty) founder and owner of BOOBY FOOD becuase she supplied the commercial grade sanitized kitchen and the freeze drying machine.

Jill Preston (my mom) because she drove me to the kitchen for two days and picked up my necessary items.

Kevin Preston (my dad) because he helped me edite my slide show.

Mr. Lee (my teacher) because he helped me with any questions I had.

Mr. Horne (the grade 5 hub teacher) because he was the one who made me in the calgary youth science fair.

Mrs. Burkell (RT Aldermans science fair liason) she helped me edit my slide show as well and she helped me with all my questions .