the art of filtering water

i will be talking about how to filter water with organic variables and these will be my 3 most important variables (activated carbon-fine sand-fine charcoal).
Alkhalil Jadalowen
Grade 6


I hypothesize that the filter with activated carbon will work the best because of its unique way of adsorption.

It cleans surfaces, solids and liquids at a chemical level.


Definition: Filtration is a process used to separate mixtures using a filter medium. It allows the fluid to pass through, the solid stays back.

There are many types of filtration: 

The natural elements that can be used for filtration are: Sand, Charcoal, activated carbon, gravel, pebbles. Carbon can be found in nature, in several forms, as graphite, diamond, charcoal etc.
when wood is burned in the absence of oxygen, it becomes charcoal.
When charcoal is treated with oxygen, it becomes activated carbon.
Activated Carbon increases the porosity. Because of this, activated carbon will have a large surface area, which can adsorb substances effectively. This primarily increases its effectiveness as a filter. Therefore, activated carbon is mainly used in water filters, in chemical purification process, and in medicine. As we use them, the impurities tend to accumulate in the carbon surfaces. So the disadvantage of using this is that they become less effective as we use them.


•Independent variables: it is the Bottom layer of my filter: Sand, Charcoal and Activated Carbon     
•Dependent varialble: the filtered water coming out of the filters.

Controlled variables: pebbles, gravel and cotton balls


1.I drew and planned the 3 experiments.
2. I placed the top half of the bottle into the bottom half than filled it with the prooper ingreediediance
3. After making 3 models, it’s time to test.Find dirty water, or make it yourself.

4.poor even amounts of dirty water into the three filters.

5. Wait about 20 minutes for the water to seep through the filter to the bottom cup.


§The bigger chunks of soil/dirt stuck at the top layer of pebbles.
§Finer dirt hung at the second layer of gravel.
§Chemical cleaning all happened at the layer of the independent variable.
§Cotton balls fell>Use paper towel next time.


the colour of the water told me weather it did a good job of filtering the water or not so the clearer the water was the better of a job it did . so basicly the colour of the water indicated weather the filter did good or bad.


-The activated carbon scored first place with the cleanest water 

-The charcoal scored second with the second most clean water 

-The sand scored third place with the dirtyest water 


-At this rate of time, it’s been calculated that there are only 18 years left until the world runs out of fresh water so these organic filters help.

-people who live in third world countries dont have acces to clean water so this organic filter i made will help them have acces to fresha nd drinkable water.


Sources Of Error

-The  type sand i used was a play box sand so it wasnt that organic.

-The cotton balls fell so do to the whieght above it so we should have used paper towel and rubber band but we still retryed and put the cotton balls back in to the bottle then poored it again.




I want to thank my sister and my dad because they helped me in this science fair project.