HONOURABLE MENTION

Two Efficient Ways to Generate Electricity

My project revolves around the method of creating electricity through the means of Hydroelectricity and Wind Energy. Along with explaining types of turbines. My project will be research based and supported by experimental evidence, using a turbine model.
Aysha Javed
Grade 8

Problem

From the two simplest methods of creating electricity, Hydroelectricity or Wind Power, which is more efficient?

Method

This is not applicable to my project since it is research based

Research

Hypothesis 

If we use Hydroelectricity then it will be more efficient because it generates electricity faster, and creates less noise pollution compared to the sound of wind power.

Variables *My project is research based, however the variables are for the model that I made.*

Independent Variable: The materials used

Dependant Variable: The type of solution I used to make electricity

Controlled Variable: The type of solution and materials I used

Materials *This project is research based, however I made a model for further explanations*

  • Gear Box Kit 
  1. Pulleys (different sized)
  2. Rubber bands
  3. Holder
  4. Generator
  5. Screws
  • Rod
  • Blades
  • Pulley
  • Alligator clips
  • Turbine
  • Stand

Definitions

Hydroelectricity: The production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water

Turbine: a machine made to revolve by fast-moving water, air, or other fluids

Wind Power: Power obtained by harnessing the energy of the wind

History of Hydroelectricity 

  • This useful method of generating electricity has been a part of our humanity for more than 140 years
  • Hydroelectric dams and such processes were invented in China around 202 BC-9 AD
  • James Francis(American Engineer), in 1849 developed the first ever modern water turbine, the Francis Turbine
  • Lester Allan Pelton (American Inventor), in 1870 developed the pelton wheel
  • The world's first project using hydroelectricity was used to power a single lamp in 1878
  • After many years the first plant was opened in Wisconsin, USA
  • Later on during the 19th century different people from Europe and North America invented the types of turbines which we now use for these monuments

Hydroelectricity Facts and Statistics

  • The electricity made when water (H2O) moves
  • H2O is the basic formula for water which is a combination of 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen 
  • Usually built in places where there are many bodies of water, or where water drops at high pressure
  • Blocks rivers and reservoirs to provide us with electricity so we can use our everyday essentials
  • In canada dams would be in places like British Columbia and Ontario
  • In the world dams could be in places like Brazil, China and Russia, etc.
  • Due to China’s fast growing economy itt has the largest dam in the world
  • Hydroelectricity can save up to $125 billion for Canada
  • There are approximately 2,300 dams in the whole world

Pros and Cons of Hydroelectricity

  1. Advantages
  • Hydroelectricity does not use the water in a way because the water is returned to that same body of water 
  • Hydroelectric power can be made anytime if there is water
  • It is also environmentally friendly thus there are no emissions released 
  • There is a gate at the beginning of this process which can control the amount of water that enters
  • Also very beneficial when there is a flood; it can be used as flood control
  1. Disadvantages
  • A lengthy process to build a dam and requires a high quality
  • A dam must survive for at least a decade to make up for the money used to make it
  • In some cases hydroelectricity can cause the death of animals or loss of habitat
  • The creation of a dam can lead to the destruction of a recreational area
  • The water is very loud, since it drops with a lot of pressure

Finance and Efficiency of Hydroelectricity

  • In Canada, the main source of Hydroelectricity is from Niagara Falls, however it only provides electricity to that general area
  • Hydropower is produced for an average of 0.85 cents per kilowatt-hour (kwh)
  • Hydroelectricity is usually cheaper than nuclear, because it is free once it’s built 
  • Modern Hydro Turbines can convert up to 90% of the energy into electricity and the best fossil fuel energy are only about 50% efficient.

Hydroelectricity

  • How electricity is produced?

Water runs down the penstock increasing the speed and pressure of the water. The water will hit the turbine causing it to spin. With an axle to the generator which then turns potential energy into electrical energy thus, creating electricity. Before creating this electricity it is taken to the transformer so it can actually be able to run daily life supplies. The transformer is attached to the transmission lines to carry the electricity to places where it is needed. Then the water is returned back to the original place it was in.

  • Does it create more electricity than other ways?

No, this is not the most efficient type of electricity. It is proven by electricians and specialists that wind is the most efficient and creates the most energy the fastest. Hydroelectricity is definitely slower than wind because it has to get the right amount of water to close the door. This is the long part otherwise both would be about the same time.

Hydroelectricity

Small-Scale:

  • Usually 10 MW or less in size
  • Is a renewable electrical energy source
  • Non polluting; no heat and noxious gassious release
  • Inflation proof and there is no fuel cost
  • Provides reliable and flexible operations
  • the stations for hydroelectricity have a long life 
  • The hydro power stations are 90% achieved of making the most efficient conversion technologies

Large-Scale

  • A form of renewable energy generation derived from flowing water used to drive large water turbines
  • Cost a lot although they ghave low maintinence costs and can last over 100 years
  • The water can be stored above dams so it may be used when needed to produce power

Turbines

Pelton Turbine

Francis Turbine

Kaplan Turbine

Pelton Turbine

  • Much smaller than Francis Turbines 
  • 4 ft in diameter and can weigh up to more than 15 tons
  • Most durable and cost efficient and can reach up to 500 rpm
  • The name Pelton cam from the engineer named Lester Pelton
  • Has cup-like objects to help the force of water
  • Most efficient out of the three turbines and can reach an efficiency of 95%
  • For this type of turbine, the more water the better
  • Due to its parts it is easier to vary the size of the wheel
  • The best way for this turbine to work is having a jet-like water flow
  • The spear at the end of the penstock gives the water more pressure

Penstock, nozzle (high speed), buckets, runner (rotating water), casing (protection), Breaking jet (stops wheel)

Francis Turbine

  • The most common turbine used today
  • Installation is cheap, the cost is about $5,000
  • Their blades are designed in a way to make it more effective
  • The name Francis came from Jame Francis (engineer) who also designed this turbine
  • They are also most wanted in today 
  • Has an efficiency of 90%
  • Unlike other turbines this type is able to give more efficiency towards making the energy
  • Has a diameter of 10 feet and weighs about 420 tons
  • These machines are very reluctant and can take various pressures and other mechanical stress

Spiral casing (keeps everything in order), guide (guides water), stay vanes (stationary), Runner blades (rotate), draft tubes (bring water)

Kaplan Turbine

  • The kaplan turbine has adjustable blades to meet the requirement of the flow rate
  • Named after the man Viktor Kaplan 
  • Has the ability to gain efficiency from various flow of water
  • Weighs about 17 tons and has a diameter of about 3-5 meters
  • Can also reach a 420 rpm
  • May reach an efficiency of over 90%
  • Costs the most out of all of the turbines and is similar to the Francis turbine
  • Have curved blades to maximize the speed 
  • The vanes controls the flow of water so that the machinery works better

Scroll casing (cross section area),  guide vanes (controller), draft tube ( brings water), runner blade (heart/power generator)

History of Wind Power

  • Charles Brush; for his mansion created the first ever windmill in Ohio.
  • Before this times, such procedures weren’t invented; it came after the first hydroelectric dam was created and was defined as a success
  • Poul la Cour prototype electrical power plant from his windmill, in 1895
  • In 1900, many windmills were being used in Denmark for mechanical purposes 
  • Then in 1903, Poul la Cour started a society of Wind electricians. 
  • Poul la Cour is known for creating faster spinning turbines that are more efficient with less blades.
  • 72 electricity-generating wind power (5 kW - 25 kW in size) were being used in Denmark by 1908 
  • Joe Jacobs and Marcellus Jacobs opened a factory called “Jacob Wind” which were used to batteries and power lights 
  • Later on, many experiments were done on turbines to discover the most efficient turbine.

Wind Power Facts and Statistics

  • Is the electricity made when air moves
  • Air includes O2(oxygen) and CO2 (carbon dioxide) etc.
  • Turbines move causing a great deal of electricity
  • made from high wind pressures usually in rural areas and closer to shores
  • It's a sustainable source of energy
  • The blade is about 200 foot (60 meters) long
  • A recents Wind turbine broke the record of energy created. It was closer to the shore and had larger blades
  • The production of Wind turbines have increased over 25% per year
  • This energy has been the most sufficient from 2011-2020
  • Similar to solar energy because it’s created by the uneven heat in the earth's atmosphere 
  • Beneficial in many ways that include: providing energy to businesses, homes and schools. etc.

Pros and Cons of Wind Power

  1. Advantages
  • Wind is free and creates no emissions
  • We are now able to use the wind efficiently
  • Some are gets covered, however the parts under the turbines can still be used but it’s recommended by specialists that 550 meters around the windmill is a prohibited area
  • It’s a nice landscape
  • Wind turbines have a role to play in both the developed and third world
  • The larger the blade, the more electricity 
  1. Disadvantages
  • The strength of wind can vary from locations which will affect the amount of electricity that is being produced
  • Really costly to build
  • Extremely noisy; may generate the amount of noise of a car going at 70 mph
  • Large wind farms are needed to provide entire communities with enough electricity 
  • The largest single turbine today can only provide electricity for 475 homes

Finance and Efficiency of Wind Power

  • To install a wind turbine it costs about $48,000 to $60,000 
  • The equipment cost is about $40,000
  • Wind power is produced at an average of 2.5 cents per kilowatt hour
  • Wind turbines will generally operate at lower than it’s best efficiency, because wind speeds are never constant or average.

Wind Power

  • How electricity is produced

The wind blows and moves the blades causing them to rotate. The rotation of the blades makes the turbine move, this also makes potential energy. This energy moves to the generator which promotes it to create electrical energy. Then this energy moves to the transformer; which makes it into electricity and sends it to the power lines. From here the electricity goes to people who need it.

  • Does it create more electricity than other ways

Yes, Wind power is the most efficient way to transport electricity compared to any type of turbines or Hydroelectricity. This is proven by electricians and specialists, that wind is the most efficient and and creates the most energy conveniently (fastest). Wind turbines are also faster than any type of turbine since wind is free.

Wind Power

Small-Scale:

  • A wind powered plant can vary in sizes, from 9m in height and 3m in diameter can create up to 10kW.
  • Due to its size the turbine only generates a small quantity of electricity 
  • Creates no harmful effect to the environment making it a very useful mechanism
  • Usually located at wind farms and can provide electricity to about 600 homes

Large-Scale:

  • This machine varies in size, from 220 m in height and 164 m in diameter; it may create up to 8 MW
  • The size is beneficial, but also can be disturbing to many organisms on the planet.
  • It’s size also increases the capacity of making electricity faster in less time
  • Other than it’s huge wings, it creates no harmful pollutant that can possibly disturb the municipality
  • Usually offshore and can provide up to 2,300 homes with electricity

Observations

I observed that the model/diagram that I made was producing less than a volt of electricity, then I changed up the gears and therefore it created more electricity. I also observed that when you attach a small pulley with a large one, then it will generate more electricity. This is because if the large pulley has one rotation then the smaller pulley will have 3 or 4 rotations. In other words, when big is attached with small, the small one will have a greater rpm and it will create more electricity. Through the research I also observed that Wind Power will be creating more electricity that Hydroelectricity. Wind is also an easier process because it doesn’t take much effort after being built. I have been to a dam before and it is a very pleasant sight to see and it is very soothing.To wind up (pun intended), many ways to generate electricity are efficient, however the most efficient are Wind and Hydro.

Data

Conclusion

My hypothesis was wrong and there was much I didn’t know about. Through all of the research that I have done and what I have learned, I can say that Wind Power is the more efficient source of electricity compared to Hydroelectricity. I really like this project especially making the model to show. It was fun for me and I hope that it was fun for you as well. I am now able to use this knowledge in my further studies in electricity. I want to become and engineer or electrician when I grow up. I was inspired by my I uncle in Pakistan, since he is also an electrician. This will also open up new career opportunities for me in the near future. I love doing these types of projects because, they keep me busy and I can learning new things. I really hope you enjoyed. 

 

Citations

References

  1. “Power Technology”https://www.power-technology.com/features/feature-the-10-biggest-hydroelectric-power-plants-in-the-world/Wed. Jan. 27, 2021
  2. “StudyCorgi.com” https://studycorgi.com/renewable-energy-usage-advantages-and-disadvantages/  Wed. Jan. 27, 2021
  3. “Renewable Energy World” https://www.renewableenergyworld.com/wind-power-2/offshore/  Wed. Jan. 27, 2021
  4. “Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Power” https://www.technologystudent.com/energy1/wind8.htm Thurs. Jan. 28, 2021
  5. “Student Energy” https://studentenergy.org/source/hydro-power/ Thurs. Jan. 28, 2021
  6. “Benefits of hydropower” https://www.energy.gov/eere/water/benefits Thurs. Jan. 28, 2021
  7. “Wind energy in Nova Scotia” https://energy.novascotia.ca/renewables/wind-energy  Fri. Jan. 29, 2021
  8. “Fuels and Energy Resources” https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/guides/zggk87h/revision/3 Fri. Jan. 29, 2021
  9. “Turbines” http://www.hydroquebec.com/learning/hydroelectricite/turbine-alternateur.html Fri. Jan. 29, 2021
  10. “The Hidden Cost for Wind Power” https://www.instituteforenergyresearch.org/renewable/wind/the-hidden-costs-of-wind-power/ Tues. Feb. 2, 2021
  11. “Kaplan Turbine” https://energyeducation.ca/encyclopedia/Kaplan_turbine Tues. Feb. 2, 2021
  12. “Kaplan Turbines” https://www.renewablesfirst.co.uk/hydropower/hydropower-learning-centre/kaplan-turbines/ Tues. Feb. 2, 2021
  13. “How does the Francis Turbine Work” https://learnengineering.org/how-does-francis-turbine-work.html  Thurs. Feb. 4, 2021
  14. “Youtube- Pelton Turbine” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qbyL--6q7_4  Thurs. Feb. 4, 2021
  15. “Youtube-Francis Turbine” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JD4VkzHk6rk Sat. Feb 6, 2021

     16.“Youtube-How Does Hydroelectricity Work” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pEUzot8Zufo Sat. Feb 6, 2021

     17. “Hydroelectricity” https://studentenergy.org/hydro-power/  Thurs. Jan. 28, 2021

     18. “Wind power” https://www.electrochem.org/ecs-blog/large-scale-wind-power-could-cause-warming/  Thurs. Jan. 28, 2021

     19. “Renewable energy jobs graph” https://www.renewableenergyworld.com/baseload/global-renewable-energy-employment-surges-18-percent-to-7-7-million/#gref  Thurs. Jan. 28, 2021

     20. “hydropower vs other renewable energy” https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=2650 Thurs. Jan. 28, 2021

     21. “Pelton Turbine” https://creativemechanical.blogspot.com/2016/05/pelton-turbine.html  Mon. Feb. 1, 2021

     22. “Hydroelectricity” http://earthsci.org/mineral/energy/hydro/hydro.html  Mon. Feb. 1, 2021

     23. “Francis Turbine” https://www.youtube.com/watch?app=desktop&v=3BCiFeykRzo  Tues. Feb. 2, 2021

     24. “Kaplan Turbine” https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.renewablesfirst.co.uk%2Fhydropower%2Fhydropower-learning-centre%2Fkaplanturbines%2F&psig=AOvVaw2LWqSpAdIrUXNKf0cy1OYu&ust=1612296140683000&source=images&cd=vfe&ved=0CAIQjRxqFwoTCOj8l7G9ye4CFQAAAAAdAAAAABAc Tues. Feb. 2, 2021

     25. “Wind Power global” https://cleantechnica.com/2013/11/07/renewable-energy-charts-renewable-energy-facts/  Thurs. Feb. 4, 2021

     26. “Wind turbine parts” https://energyeducation.ca/encyclopedia/Wind_turbine  Sat. Feb. 6, 2021

     27. “Wind turbine parts” https://www.fuelcellstore.com/blog-section/energy-harnessed-from-the-wind-part-two  Sat. Feb. 6, 2021

     28. “Wind turbine height” https://www.vox.com/energy-and-environment/2018/3/8/17084158/wind-turbine-power-energy-blades  Sat. Feb 6, 2021

     29. “Wind turbine distribution” https://cleantechnica.com/2013/06/30/what-is-wind-energy-wind-energy-101/  Sat. Feb. 6, 2021

Acknowledgement

The credit is always uncertain to whom it truly belongs. Behind one person there may be an army to restrain one from falling. The army can be built from our experiences of failure, success, sacrifices, hard work, betrayers, and or life long supporters. In my life, Ive always had many supporters including my techers and family; who Id love to acknowledge. I always had both of my parents who would support me no matter what My success was their happiness. When I'd lose to my expectation, they taught me that life goes on, and I should strive till the end. I acknowledge my parents, my respected and beloved mother and father, whom have left no opportunity in life to provide me the best. Continuously, they cheer for me even if im not the best, they show me the rights and wrongs of all, they teach me to be a good human before anything and to never give in. My parents have and continuously teach me in every step of life. Not only teach me but support me at every single point in my life. I believe my parents are my backbone however, every individual I have encountered in life brought with them new things to teach. That's where my previous idea came that acknowledgement can never belong to oneself or to specific people but can be ranked to whome took most part in shaping who we are today apart from ourselves.