SILVER

#### Hot, Warm or Cold: The effect of temperature of water on solubility of sugar

This project is about how and why the amount of sugar dissolved in the water changes when it is dissolved in water at three different temperatures

### Hypothesis

If 50g of sugar is put in tap water at  three different temperatures (9 degrees celsius,50 degrees celsius and 80 degrees celsius),then the water at 80 degree celsius will dissolve the most amount of sugar .

### Research

The focus of this experiment will be to investigate the effect of temperature on solubility of sugar in water.When we put the sugar in water,it dissolves and a solution is made.A solution is made up of 2 parts- the solute and solvent.The solvent is part of the solution that dissolves the other substance that is called the solute.In the expirement above,water is the solvent and sugar is the solute. The solubility of the solute in a solvent depend on its interaction with solvent molecules.The solute has to interact with solvent moecules in order to get dissolved.The bonds between the solute has to be broken by solvent molecules in order to get dissolved.When add sugar into water,water molecules attract to sugar molecules.This weakens the bond between the sugar mmolecules.As a result,some of the sugar molecules get seperated from the bulk of sugar and gets dissolved.This process keeps on going until the water dissolves all the sugar.Automatically, the water molecules also spread out to make space for the sugar molecules in them.

In the past,some of the previous researchers proved that the solubility of sugar increases when we increase the tempurature of the solvent. This happens because when we raise the tempurature of the solvent,the kinetic energy of water molecules increases.When water molecules move faster,they come in contact with sugar molecules more often and dissolves sugar faster.Moreovert, the water molecules with more kinetic energy spread further apart creating bigger gaps between them.This will alloww more  sugar molecules to fit between them.

Parts of a solution

• Solute:The solute is the substance that is being dissolved by another substance.In the example above,sugar is the solute.
• Solvent:It is the substance that dissolves the other substance.In the example above,water is the solvent.

Properties of A Solution

1. It is uniform or homogeneous throughout the mixture.
2. It is stable and it doesn’t change over time.
3. The solute particles are so small that they can’t be separated by filtering.
4. The solute and solvent molecules can’t be seen by the naked eye.

### Variables

Manipulated Variable-My manipulated variable is the temperature of the water.

Responding Variable-My responding variable is the undissolved sugar.

Controlled Variables-My controlled variables are the amount of water.The others are the weight of sugar,the type of water and the type of sugar.

Uncontrolled Variables-My uncontrolled variables are the change in the temperature of my house as it affects the rate at which temperature of water changes when poured in cylinders.Also,the speed at which the sugar was poured into the graduated cylinder.

### Procedure

First,pour 250 ml of hot water(80°C),250 ml of cold water(9°C) and 250 ml of warm water(50°C) in 3 separate dry and clean graduated cylinders.Next, weigh 50g of sugar three times in a bowl.Don’t forget to subtract the weight of the bowl when checking the weight.Afterward, put 50g of sugar each on 3 pieces of paper.After, pour 50 grams of sugar into each graduated cylinder at the same time.Do not shake or stir the sugar.Then,set these graduated cylinders aside for 5 minutes. Later,measure the amount of sugar left in the cylinders. Finally,record the results on a piece of paper.Repeat these steps two more times.

### Observations

 Tempurature Of The Water(In Degrees Celsius)(Trial 1) How Much Watr Was Dissolved(In Grams)(Trial 1) 9°C 14g 50°C 16g 80°C 18g

 Tempurature Of The Water(In Degrees Celsius)(Trial 2) How Much Watr Was Dissolved(In Grams)(Trial 2) 9°C 22g 50°C 40g 80°C 48g

 Tempurature Of The Water(In Degrees Celsius)(Trial 3) How Much Watr Was Dissolved(In Grams)(Trial 3) 9°C 28g 50°C 42g 80°C 48g

### Conclusion

The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effect of temperature on solubility of a sugar in a water. In order to conduct this experiment the following steps were taken.First,pour 250 ml of hot water(80°C),250 ml of cold water(9°C) and 250 ml of warm water(50°C) in 3 separate dry and clean graduated cylinders.Next, weigh 50g of sugar three times in a bowl.Don’t forget to subtract the weight of the bowl when checking the weight.Afterward, put 50g of sugar each on 3 pieces of paper.After, pour 50 grams of sugar into each graduated cylinder.Do not shake or stir the sugar.Then,set these graduated cylinders aside for 5 minutes.Later,measure the amount of sugar left in the cylinders.Finally, record the results on a piece of paper.Repeat these steps two more times.

It was predicted that the result of this experiment would be that the water at the temperature of 80 degree celsius will dissolve more sugar.This turned out to be true because the molecules in the hot water have more kinetic energy which helped in breaking the sugar molecules faster ,thus making the sugar dissolve faster in hot water.Moreover, in the hot water , water molecules spread apart making more room in between them, which allows more sugar molecules to fit in between them.My hypothesis was correct meaning that what I predicted was the correct answer.This conclusion can be better supported by the following research. Some people have done a similar experiment,by putting salt in water of different temperature.They had the same results as this experiment had. It was discovered that salt also dissolves quicker in hot water than in cold water.However,the amount of salt dissolved is much less as compared to the sugar dissolved at the same temperature. This happens because sugar molecules are bigger than the ions of dissolved salt. This allows more water molecules to surround a single sugar particle,pulling it into the sugar faster.

A good follow up experiment would be to test solubility of sugar in two different liquids(water and vinegar). This would be a good follow up experiment as testing solubility in two different liquid could have different results as the different solvent differ in molecules in structure. This could affect the way with which they interact with sugar molecules.It could be that vinegar dissolves more sugar than water.

To be exactly sure which experiment will be good,here is a survey about what will be a good follow up experiment.

1. Does the colour affect the solubility of the M&M in water?
2. Does the type of sugar(white sugar,brown sugar and coconut sugar)affect its solubility in water?
3. Does the type of liquid(water and vinegar)affect solubility of sugar in them?

### Application

This experiment could be useful to food industries.If they were making candy, they would first have to heat up the water to dissolve more sugar for it to make it sweeter.In this process,they would make treats faster.Also,while making drinks,which involves sugar,one can make a drink faster by taking hot water than cold water.

### Sources Of Error

Errors that could have occured during my experiment could have been the speed the water was poured.It could have been that the water was poured so fast that the sugar might have started to dissolved at the first touch of water.Variables like the temperature of the water could have been better controlled as the temperature of the water could have changed when it was poured into into the graduated cylinder.If the water was over heated by only a few degrees,the water would cool down when it was poured in the graduated cylinder.Also,the order in which sugar and water were put in the graduated cylinders affected the results.

### Citations

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(n.d.). Retrieved March 9, 2021, from https://www.google.com/search?q=solution&oq=solurion&aqs=chrome.1.69i57j0i10i433l2j0i10j46i10i175i199j0i10i131i433j0i10l2j0i10i131i433j46i175i199i433.5431j1j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

(n.d.). Retrieved March 9, 2021, from https://www.google.com/search?ei=2x9IYLz5NcXP0PEP-fShiAo&q=why sugar dissolves more in hot water than in cold water for kidsids.Bing&oq=why sugar dissolves more in hot water than in cold water for kidsids.Bing&gs_lcp=Cgdnd3Mtd2l6EANQhzVYmkxgsVFoAXAAeACAAVCIAfACkgEBNZgBAKABAaoBB2d3cy13aXrAAQE&sclient=gws-wiz&ved=0ahUKEwj80oPByKTvAhXFJzQIHXl6CKEQ4dUDCA0&uact=5

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### Acknowledgement

I would like to thank my awsome science teacher Mr. Vandrunen for guiding and helping me throughout my science fair project.He always helped kindly and patiently to get a deeper understanding of this concept of solubility.

I would like to say thanks to my parents for providing me materials needed to preform my science fair project.They also helped me to conduct the experiment while handling the hot water.