Future of the Eye - Retinal Scans and Advancements

Demonstrate how far and advanced Retinal Scans have gotten, and how Retinal Scans can differentiate eyes and accurately capture information.
Kimaya Satavalekar
Grade 5


As my problem is:

  • Areas like banks, and financial places are getting even more insecure.
  • Fingerprints and recognition techniques are being doubted.
  • Retinal scans are one of the few techniques that are trusted.
  • How is one eye classified different from another? How can Retinal Scans differentiate eyes better? How fast and accurately can Retinal Scans tell the difference?

How is one eye classified different from another? How can Retinal Scans differentiate eyes better? How fast and accurately can Retinal Scans tell the difference

My hypothesis is:

  • Retinal Eye scans will be the future of security protection
  • How one eye is classified different from another eye may be because of the unique patterns and structures of blood capillaries in front of a retina.
  • In around 10 – 15 seconds the Retina Scanner can go through the process of detection.
  • The unique patterns are so accurate that even identical twins don’t share a same structure!
  • This process is very trustable because the retina never changes by anything except diseases.



Since technology keeps growing and evolving, security is becoming more and more critical and Retinal Scanners are trustable biometric recognition techniques which uses your retina to detect a person.

  • Everybody's retina in the whole world is different, because the pattern of blood cells and blood vessels in front of a retina is very unique.
  • This makes this recognition technique better than fingerprints, voice recognition, or facial recognition because of it's accuracy, and excellence. 

Feature Extraction Process:

The process of feature extraction is where a retinal scan extracts features from a retina to get to a point where only blood capillaries are seen. The blood capillaries/cells are found by a series of steps that are adjusted to make it easier for the retinal scan/computer to read the process and the image of the retina scan:

  • Step 1: Scan light beam through eye into retina to get RGB colored accurate picture.
  • Step 2: Greyscale and darken the image surroundings
  • Step 3: Darken the blood vessels and retina
  • Step 4: Smoothen the picture out (blend) and greyscale more
  • Step 5: Make the picture a binary clean model (white)
  • Step 6: Darken the blood vessels again for the binary clean model
  • Step 7: Locate all the blood capillaries around the blood vessels (actual unique area) and mark the points\
  • Step 8: Take out the blood vessels (erase) and keep the blood capillaries and identify person

Iris Scans:

Iris scans are another type of biometric eye recognition technique and it is also accurate:

  • 90-99% chance of succeeding
  • Less accurate than retinal scans, but safer than retinal scans
  • There are no big side effects of iris scanning
  • Retinal Scans have many side effects (dilating pupils can occur, because of the intense light)
  • Uses your iris (biometric) color, shape, size, diameter, and details to recognize a person.


The variables are:

Independent Variable: My independent variable is the order and structure of blood vessels/veins in front of the retina that I have drawn.

Dependent Variable: My Dependent variable is the all the full steps of extracting features from the retina (the different steps).

Controlled Variable: My controlled variable is the retina which the scan is happening on (drawn).


The procedure of my project is:

  • Maintained detailed logbook for each step from introduction to conclusion.
  • Did lots of research and read many verified and detailed articles.
  • Wrote down all my learnings and information in my logbook and drew pictures.
  • Learned about Feature Extraction Process of Retina Scans.
  • Wrote and planned out my Procedure of my Experiment
  • Executed my experiment and found the Results.
  • Collected the Results and added to trifold
  • Cut, stick, and organized all my data and information on trifold.
  • Gathered my ending Abstract for Conclusion.


My observations for my experiment are:

  • 1. If you have an eye problem or eye disease, sometimes the feature extraction process doesn’t work on the retina.
  • 2. You had to go though 5 other steps to get to a binary clean model of the retina (white).
  • 3. There is a very tiny chance that the blood vessels or blood veins in a retina can be similar in the world, but the blood capillaries/cells will never be similar.
  • 4. How the computer tells where the blood cells are is by looking at the blood vessels and around them and by using other computer analyzing techniques.
  • 5. Each step forward makes it more clear for the retinal scan/computer to identify the retina (RGB colored, gray scaled, smoothened, skeletonized, binary cleaned, etc.)



My analysis is:

This project has demonstrated how useful and helpful retinal scans are in this modern age of technology. It is helping keep places secure and safe and is a brilliant recognition technique:

  • very accurate and efficient
  • can cause side effects such as dilating pupils
  • Very hard to fool because nobody in the whole world have same retinas

Technology is changing, growing, and evolving and many problems of retinal scans will be solved, and retinal scans will become very advanced in the future as well! Many advancements in technology are occurring and retinal scans are one of the first out of many. 


My conclusion is:

  • Retinal Scan are one of the most accurate biometric scanning techniques ever made yet and will be the future many years from now. They are very hard to hack because Retinas are never similar.
  • This recognition strategy is very trustable and in the very near future, nobody will doubt this technique.
  • Retinal Scans are a recognition technique that uses your unique structures and patterns of blood vessels/cells in the back of your eye (retina) to determine or identify a person.
  • It is a form of recognition like fingerprints, voice recognition, and facial recognition but the difference is that Retinal Scans use your eye/retina and are more accurate.
  • The Retina’s blood capillaries will clearly differentiate two eyes, because of their uniqueness and complex patterns.
  • Retinal Scans are also slowly changing and growing to develop on new devices such as: handheld Retinal Scans, Retinal Scanning apps, Retinal Ultra-Wide Camera Scopes, and many more.



The application for this project is:

  • 1. In financial areas, military places, and governmental organizations, retinal scans have started being used to keep important items and information secure.
  • 2. They are also used in Police departments, FBI, and NASA
  • 3. They are used in eye doctor places and in eye surgery.
  • 4. Retina scans can be found in very high security places, such as nuclear reactors, government facilities, and science labs.

Sources Of Error

In an experimental project, many Sources of Errors can be apparent. Mine are below:

  • 1: When in a retinal scan, when the person getting scanned blinks their eyes, sometimes they may not be accurate
  • 2: There may be some debugging errors when scanning
  • 3: When scanning there can be side effects
    • Dilating Pupils
    • very dark eyesight
    • purple eyesight           
  • 4: Loads of scanning at one time can cause scan breakdown



My acknowledgement is:

I thank the CYSF committee for giving me a chance of being part of this competition and sharing my ideas on my topic. I also thank my teachers and mentors at Fairview school for helping me out with questions if I had any and I thank my family for being with me when I needed some advice for my project. Last but not least, I thank all the helpful detailed websites and articles which have supplied all this information for me online. You may look at my References for my websites at my Citation links.

Thank you,