GOLD

Effect of Relative Humidity and Air temperature on Plant Seeds

I will be looking at how an increase or decrease of humidity and air temperature effects the growth of plants.
Mahrosh Abid
Grade 7

Hypothesis

As always, before starting any experiment, it is crucial to have a hypothesis. My hypothesis for this experiment is that the lack of relatively optimal temperature and relatively optimal humidity will result in growth problems for the plant such as decaying leaves, growing very slow, etc. Having a humid environment (40-60%), as well as an environment which is in perfect conditions (20-25 °C) will result in proper and fast growing plants.​

Research

 

Raspberry Pi Information:

The raspberry pi is an ultra-small computer which was designed to teach children as well as adults, how a computer works. These computers have made their way to many homes and schools.

Temperature and Humidity Sensors: Hygrometers + DHT11

Mung Bean Information:

The mung beans (Vigna radiata) belong to the legumes family. Mung beans are warm season crops and sprout very quickly (3-5 days). They only need about 90-120 days to fully mature in hot and dry enviroments equipped with a lot of sunlight. 

Essentially, mung beans germination rate entirely depends on the amount of moisture is given to them during the germination stage. After they mung bean seeds begin to germinate, they slowly form a white root (radicle) which grows directly from the mung beans. The mung bean then slowly develops a root system and eventually, a green stem will begin to grow from the mung bean. These green stems, as their growth cycle continues, begin to grow leaves and branches. Within the branches of the mung bean plant, seed pods begin to develop. Within those seed pods, their are 10-15 seeds.

The mung bean plant can reach up to 30 inches tall. At this point, it will contain multiple branches and seed pods. The seed pods (once they fully mature) vary in color. Some may appear as black while others appear as yellow. The seeds colour also varies between black, green, or yellow.

Mung beans are nutrient rich. They contain a lot of:

  • healthy antioxidants - flavonoids, caffeic acid, etc.
  • protein
  • essential amino acids - phenylalanine,  valine, etc.
  • fiber
  • important vitamins

Once mung bean sprout, their nutriional value decreases which significanlty lowers the amount of nutrients they contain. Although, once they sporut, the amount of antioxidants increase by 6 times more than the regular upsprouted mung beans. Mung beans also have spcial anti-inflammarotry properties. These help prevent, especially in the hot summer days, high body temperature, heat stroke, etc.

 

Variables

Relative Humidity and Air Temperature Expeirment - Variables

Procedure

My procedure for this experiment required several steps to ensure that the humdiity and temperature for the mung bean seeds were not trapped within a contianer, which would result in the mung bean seeds being in constant enviroments which would not be provided from the location:

Procedure:

1. Take a paper towel and spray 1ml of water on it

2. Then, place mung bean seed inside paper towel

3. Next, take an egg carton cup and place a damp paper towel with a seed in the cup

4. Place the egg carton cup in a box.

5. Take the box to the required area and put it in a corner

6. Repeat this 5 more times

7. For each area, you will have 3 samples. Based on this - water sample number 1,2, and 3 with 1ml

8. Exactly 24 hours later, water sample #2 and #3, but don’t water sample #1

 

 

Observations

Observations for the 'Relative Humidity and Air Temperautre Effect on Plant Seeds' Expeirment:

 

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NOTE: Towel observations weren't done because the towel was the exact same as the previous day

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NOTE: February 26th, 2021 - Observations were not added since they were the exact same as the previous day

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NOTE: February 28th, 2021 - Observations were not added since they were the exact same as the previous day

NOTE: March 1st, 2021 - Observations were not added since they were the exact same as the previous day

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NOTE: March 3rd, 2021 - Observations were not added since they were the exact same as the previous day

 NOTE: March 4th, 2021 - Observations were not added since they were the exact same as the previous day

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NOTE: March 6th, 2021 - Observations were not added since they were the exact same as the previous day

 NOTE: March 7th, 2021 - Observations were not added since they were the exact same as the previous day

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NOTE: March 9th, 2021 - Observations were not added since they were the exact same as the previous day

 NOTE: March 10th, 2021 - Observations were not added since they were the exact same as the previous day

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Analysis

The storeroom location with the temperature of 15°C and 35% humidity resulted in a growth range of 0.1 inches – 0.4 inches. The sampels placed in this location had the smallest lengths and grew the slowest.The temperature range of 20°C - 25°C and humidity range of 40%-43%, which is the bedroom location, resulted in a growth range of 0 inches –0.7 inches. The samples in this location grew a moderate length and at a moderate pace. The temperature range of 25°C - 30°C and humidity range of 44%-50%, which is the kitchen location, resulted in a growth range of 0.2 inches –1.6 inches. The sampels in this location grew the fastest and the tallest.​

The hypothesis stated that 20-25°C temperature and 40-43% humidity would result in the mung bean seeds growing the tallest and the fastest.  However, based on the aforementioned results, this hypothesis is found to be incorrect. In fact, the highest temperature and humidity range, not the moderate temperature and humidity range, resulted in fastest and tallest growth.The reason why the location with 25-30°C temperature and 44-50% humidity grew the fastest was because from literature it is found that the germination rate of mung beans depends on the amount of moisture provided to them during the germination stage. The germination rate of mung beans increases with an increase in moisture content.As we see can see here, the location with the most amount of moisture (45-50%) and higher temperature (25-30°C) resulted in the mung bean seeds growing the fastest and the tallest. Likewise, the location with the lowest amount of moisture and lowest temperature, which was the storeroom with a humidity of 35% and a temperautre of 15°C, resulted in the slowest and smallest growth. ​

Conclusion

The objective of this expeirment was achieved. I was able to determine the best condition in terms of temperature and humidity for plant growth. The hypothesis stated was found to be incorrect. The highest temperature and humidity range resulted in the best growing conditions. That is, the temperature range of 25°C - 30°C and humidity range of 44%-50%, which is the kitchen resulted in the fastest and tallest growth of the mung bean seeds.​

Application

This plant project has several real-world application peices. In fact, if we look around we can see that plants have a variety of purposes in our world today. They can provide a source of income​ (plant shops), they can be a souce of food (greenhouse edible plants), they can even just be used to dcorate your living space.

 

Sources Of Error

In this project I had multiple souces of errors:

Due to the fact that throughout the experiment I had to change up the procedure, this resulted in a less controlled experiment. Furhtermore I had limited enviroments meaning that less tests were conducted. I also had a small sample size for each location. Another source of error was the fact that my growth days for each location were limited:

Location 1 + 2 = grew for 14 days

Location 3 = grew for 9 days

As you can see these growth days limited and were different for some locations.

The final source of error that I had in this experiment was the mung beans themselves. Each mung bean is different even though they have the same growth cycle. Some mung beans will sprout in different ways while others may not sprout at all. 

Citations

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5876200/

https://www.apieceofrainbow.com/super-fast-way-start-seeds/

https://www.codementor.io/@gergelykovcs/how-to-run-and-schedule-python-scripts-on-raspberry-pi-n2clhe3kp

https://www.itechfy.com/tech/auto-run-python-program-on-raspberry-pi-startup/

https://www.realvnc.com/en/raspberrypi/

https://www.botany.one/2019/03/microplastics-could-pose-a-threat-to-plants/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dirz0WIMQi0

https://www.gardenershq.com/Growing-Mung-Beans.php

https://www.siagroup.com/articles-1/lima-bean-in-a-bag#:~:text=Place%20the%20wrapped%20bean%20in,a%20spray%20bottle%20of%20water.

https://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=63040

https://geek-university.com/raspberry-pi/list-running-processes/

https://www.raspberrypi-spy.co.uk/2015/02/how-to-autorun-a-python-script-on-raspberry-pi-boot/

https://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=70809

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SY4QeRCICVU

https://raspi.tv/2012/how-to-safely-shutdown-or-reboot-your-raspberry-pi

https://pimylifeup.com/cron-jobs-and-crontab/

https://www.daff.gov.za/docs/Brochures/MbeanpGUDELINS.pdf

https://traditionalcookingschool.com/food-preparation/sprouting/sprouting-beans-lentils-mung-beans-and-garbanzo-beans-chickpeas/#:~:text=from%201%20vote-,How%20To%20Sprout%20Beans%3A%20Lentils%2C%20Mung%20Beans%2C%20%26%20Garbanzo,helps%20to%20pre%2Ddigest%20them.

https://stackoverflow.com/questions/51568203/how-to-save-sensor-data-output-into-excel-using-python

https://www.instructables.com/Raspberry-Pi-Launch-Python-script-on-startup/

https://www.hunker.com/13426516/factors-for-the-germination-of-mung-beans-to-grow

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mJ6FMllKf18

https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/office/filter-data-in-a-range-or-table-01832226-31b5-4568-8806-38c37dcc180e

https://www.publish.csiro.au/CP/CP11218

https://homeguides.sfgate.com/conditions-mung-bean-growth-28008.html

https://www.gardenguides.com/98365-life-cycle-mung-bean.html

https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/edible/vegetables/beans/how-to-grow-mung-beans.htm

https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/remote-access/access-over-Internet/README.md

https://www.circuitbasics.com/how-to-set-up-the-dht11-humidity-sensor-on-the-raspberry-pi/

https://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=51022

https://github.com/adafruit/Adafruit_Python_DHT

https://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=47061

https://raspberrypi.stackexchange.com/questions/82041/cron-jobs-not-running-when-specific-time-specified

https://learn.sparkfun.com/tutorials/raspberry-pi-safe-reboot-and-shutdown-button/all#:~:text=We%20can%20reboot%20the%20Pi,reboot%20(%20%2Dr%20)%20command.

https://stackoverflow.com/questions/34857100/crontab-in-raspberry-pi-doesnt-run-a-very-simple-script/45540857

https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/linux/usage/cron.md

https://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=43599

https://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=179996

 

Acknowledgement

I want to thank my parents who were my mentors. I also want to thank my cordinator, Mr. Krawchuk, for his constant support and gudance.