Catching the Waves of Inflation
How can we use the Cosmic Microwave Background to provide evidence for Primordial Gravitational Waves?
The Method that I will use to complete this research project will be weekly meetings with Jamil A. Shariff, who specializes in, and works on many projects to do with the project that I am working on such as SPIDER. I will do research on specific questions to do with my inquiry question and that will help me to see if my hypothesis was correct or not.
All of my research can be found in a logbook that I keep, but I have sumamrized all of it into a slideshow that is attached.
All of my data and research can be found in my logbook, which I have uploaded in the attachments section
In Conclusion, the validity of the hypothesis presented is unknown, but theoretically the method should work, and currently, Scientists have a similar hypothesis. However, until there is concrete evidence on weather Primordial Gravitational Waves exist or not, this hypothesis can neither be confirmed nor disproved. Scientists are using progressively more accurate methods in order to identify if the CMB is polarized by Primordial Gravitational Waves.
BICEP2 visuals. (n.d.). The BICEP and Keck Array CMB Experiments. https://bicepkeck.org/visuals.html
Chu, J. (2020, December 9). A technique to sift out the universe’s first gravitational waves. MIT News | Massachusetts Institute of Technology. https://news.mit.edu/2020/universe-first-gravitational-waves-1209
CMB polarization. (n.d.). www.cfa.harvard.edu/ |. https://www.cfa.harvard.edu/~cbischoff/cmb/
De Bernardis, P., & Masi, S. (2012). The cosmic microwave background: Observing directly the early universe. Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2012: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Wave, 23. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.979916
Density wave model | COSMOS. (n.d.). https://astronomy.swin.edu.au/cosmos/D/Density+Wave+Model
ESA science & technology - What are baryonic acoustic oscillations? (n.d.). ESA Science & Technology - Science & Technology. https://sci.esa.int/web/euclid/-/what-are-baryonic-acoustic-oscillations-
Gravitational Lensing. (2019, 30). HubbleSite.org. https://hubblesite.org/contents/articles/gravitational-lensing
Howell, E. (2018, August 24). Cosmic microwave background: Remnant of the Big Bang. Space.com. https://www.space.com/33892-cosmic-microwave-background.html
Hu, W. (n.d.). Electric and Magnetic Modes. Wayne Hu's Tutorials. https://background.uchicago.edu/~whu/polar/webversion/node8.html
Hu, W., & White, M. (2004). The cosmic symphony. Scientific American, 290(2), 44-53. https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0204-44
Keating, B. (2018). Losing the Nobel prize: A story of cosmology, ambition, and the perils of science's highest honor. W. W. Norton & Company.
Kurzgesagt – In a Nutshell. (2014, March 3). The beginning of everything -- The Big Bang [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/wNDGgL73ihY
Moskowitz, C. (2014, March 17). Gravity waves from Big Bang detected. Scientific American. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/gravity-waves-cmb-b-mode-polarization/
Nave, R. (n.d.). Classification of polarization. https://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/phyopt/polclas.html
Observatories across the electromagnetic spectrum. (n.d.). nasa.com. https://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/science/toolbox/emspectrum_observatories1.html
Polarization of light, linear and circular (video). (n.d.). Khan Academy. https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/light-waves/introduction-to-light-waves/v/polarization-of-light-linear-and-circular
Sample size calculator. (n.d.). Calculator.net: Free Online Calculators - Math, Fitness, Finance, Science. https://www.calculator.net/sample-size-calculator.html
Tristram, M., Banday, A., Gorski, K., Keskitalo, R., Lawrence, C., Andersen, K., Barreiro, R., Borrill, J., Eriksen, H., Fernandez-Cobos, R., Kisner, T., Martinez-Gonzalez, E., Partridge, B., Scott, D., Svalheim, T., Thommesen, H., & Wehus, I. (2020). Planck constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 19. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202039585
WMAP Big Bang CMB test. (2016, May 9). Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). https://wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/bb_tests_cmb.html
WMAP CMB fluctuations. (2014, August 20). Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). https://wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/bb_cosmo_fluct.html
I would like to acknowledge Jamil A. Shariff, PhD, Astrophysicist, Member of Technical Staff in Systems Design at MDA for assisting me with this project.