GOLD

Does the universe end?

Me and my partner are trying figure out if the universe ends
Daniella Lajzer Kate Benoit
Grade 6

Problem

Does the Universe End?

Does the universe end as in it kills everything inside of it?

Or does it have walls where we could travel to and what would we find there?

Method

We first started our project by deciding what we were both interested in. We both loved space so we agreed on that but we needed to think of a question we were wondering about that we thought no one had the answer to. We came to the decision that our question would be: Does the Universe End?

Next we came up with a hypothesis. We were thinking on how no one knew where the enge of the universe was so we thought maybe our universe is like a circle or a donut so that no matter how far we travelled, we would only be going in circles so while we would think we were going farther and farther to the edge of the universe we were really just going in circles and never noticed anything.

We started researching theories about the shape of our universe so that we would know what the 'walls' could look like. Which is how we  found out about Albert Einstein and his theory of relativity and Hubble's telescope.  

Then we also researched all the Big ways the universe could end as in die.

Then we started working on the tri-fold and finally came up with the conclusion that no one really knows and there are so many theories. Our donut shaped universe could even be right. So we did this project again because we wanted to see if there were more theories or information. That's why we love this project because we could do it every year and still have more and more interesting information come in. 

Research

Big Bang

Georges Lemaitre was the one who formulated the Big Bang universe theory. His theory was that the universe was shrinking to a point and the point was what caused the universe to expand. So the universe was shrinking and it was putting soooo much pressure on this point and it was getting so compact that it had to burst,so it did. 

It exploded and it is what caused the universe to expand forever. It started because of a thing called inflation that started 13.8 billion years ago. It burst from a size smaller than an electron to almost as big as it is today. 13.8 billion years is the supposed age of the universe. After the universe expanded, the universe cooled down and started creating the important things of the universe. Subatomic particles, helium, lithium and mostly hydrogen were brought together through gravity thus forming stars and galaxies. 

And that is how the universe was created.

Big Bounce

The Big Bounce is one of the 2 ways it could end in a closed universe. After the universe starts expanding, it is creating stars and planets and then after billions of years, it is too dense in the universe so it starts contracting into a very small area and it explodes again. Then it keeps going back and forth between expanding and contracting. Also known as “bouncing”.

Big Freeze

The Big Freeze ( Once popularly called “Heat Death”) is one of the 3 theories that can lead to an end in an open universe. The Big Freeze is when the universe’s expansion continues forever. If this were to happen, everything would get farther and farther away from the sun, it would become so cold that it would no longer be able to create or continue life, therefore leading to the end of the universe.

Big Crunch

The Big Crunch is a possible way for the universe to end. It's where the universe expands so much and gets so dense that it stops expanding and starts shrinking. It would shrink as fast as the universe expands.All the stars and galaxies get so smooshed together that they merge. There would only be a tiny amount of space for all the atoms to fit and it would be really hot and dense.

Big Rip

The Big Rip is another one of the 3 ways that the universe can end in an open universe. The Big Rip is when the universe is expanding so much that the universe literally rips apart. The gravity of the galaxies is too weak to balance out the expansion of the universe, so the universe rips. An example of that is if you had a blanket and you put a bowling ball on it, and the edges of the blanket were being pulled at the same time. If the blanket was being pulled harder than the bowling ball could weigh down the blanket, the blanket would eventually rip. 


Big Slurp

The Big Slurp Theory is one of the ways the universe could end. The Big Slurp is when a “bubble” from a different universe somehow comes to ours. Then there would be an extreme shift in the forces that control the universe and the bubble would expand at the speed of light in all different directions. Once that happens it will start to suck up the universe, but the good thing is that it most likely won't happen for tens of billions of years. It is called the Big Slurp because if you think of you drinking  a glass of water through a straw you are pulling all the water together and slurping it up! That's what's happening with the bubble and the universe.

Data

Open Universe

The open universe is another one of the 3 theories of our universe’s shape. It has a negative curvature which means that it is saddle shaped and is bent like a slope. This theory has no boundaries and so this shape can expand forever. There are 3 ways that the unierse can end in this universe. The ways that it can end in are: The Big Rip, The Big Slurp and the Big Freeze. These theories for the end of the universe are shared between the flat and the open universe theory. That means that both the flat and open uiverse both can end in the Big Rip, Big Freeze and the Big Slurp. 

Image result for saddle shaped universe

Flat Universe

 The flat universe has no curvature unlike the open and closed universes.

A flat universe is like a piece of paper, so if the piece of paper is our universe, it would not expand up, it would expand sideways. A flat universe is similar to an open universe because it has no edges, and is constantly expanding, unless you count the top and bottom. All the “Bigs” that could happen in this universe can also happen in the open universe.

Image result for flat universe

Closed Universe

The closed universe is another one of the 3 theories of our universe’s shape. The closed universe has a positive curvature. That means that it’s curved like a sphere. Above all this writing you will see the picture of all of the theories of what the universe’s shape might be. The top one is the closed universe. 

A closed universe cannot expand and it has edges. Some of the bigs cannot happen in a closed universe like the big freeze. Similar to our hypothesis, if you traveled a far distance in a closed universe you would end up back where you started.

           

These are what the tree main universes look like.

 

 

Conclusion

 Conclusion 

We have two different conclusions rela. One could be a saddle universe. Edwin Hubble came up with this hypothesis. He thought that if the universe didn't have enough density, our universe would continue to expand forever. Second, Albert Einstein's theory of generaltivity thought that space itself can be curved by mass making it into big ball.

So our conclusion is that nobody really knows whenever the universe ends or not. The light that was created by the big bang, has not had enough time to travel near the 'end' so our conclusion is just theories. Our universe could be a giant balloon and it is constantly expanding. Imagine there is some "Astronaut Dude" and he is trying to find the edge of the universe and he is floating in the middle of the balloon, but someone is blowing up the balloon to represent our expanding universe which happened  because of the Big Bang and it is impossible for the "Astronaut Dude" to get to the edge of the universe. But because we cannot see or go there because it is constantly expanding, no one knows what the edge of the universe is like.








 

Citations

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultimate_fate_of_the_universe

https://www.pnas.org/content/112/11/3173

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expansion_of_the_universe

https://skyserver.sdss.org/dr1/en/astro/universe/universe.asp

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Einstein%27s_static_universe

https://io9.gizmodo.com/the-real-reason-why-einstein-came-to-believe-in-an-expa-1525158694

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Crunch

https://phys.org/news/2015-02-universe.html

https://www.space.com/24309-shape-of-the-universe.html

https://www.universetoday.com/118614/is-everything-actually-shrinking/

https://www.science-sparks.com/how-does-the-universe-expand/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shape_of_the_universe

https://phys.org/news/2017-06-universe-flat-topology.html

https://physicsworld.com/a/is-the-universe-saddle-shaped/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three-torus_model_of_the_universe

https://www.universetoday.com/143956/new-research-suggests-that-the-universe-is-a-sphere-and-not-flat-after-all/

https://spaceplace.nasa.gov/nebula/en/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Bang

https://alienexpanse.com/index.php?threads/the-shape-of-the-universe.2503/

https://www.space.com/17661-theory-general-relativity.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Bounce

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Rip

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_energy

https://kids.kiddle.co/Dark_energy

https://academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Big_Rip

https://www.nbcnews.com/sciencemain/will-our-universe-end-big-slurp-higgs-particle-suggests-it-1C8415998

Book: planets by elizabeth carnery

 https://steemit.com/history/@scorpino99/the-big-bang-theory-project.

https://spaceplace.nasa.gov/big-bang/en/.

https://wwwesa.int/kid/en/learn/our_universe/story_of_the_universe/the_universe.

https://en.m.wikibooks.org/wiki/high_school_earth_science/the_universe.

https://prezi.com/f3fssnfjj9je/the-big-slurp/

https://wallpapersafari.com/blue-space-wallpaper/




 

Acknowledgement


Jody Lajzer and Jason Benoit.

Thank you for the help : )